Admitting you cannot always do it on your own and you are not always right

I am going to forgo one of the usual blog posts about a particular medical topic or a direct strategy to tackle questions on your exams and talk about what can hold you back. The answer to this question is being a lone wolf. You need to learn that most people cannot excel on your own, at least not completely. From my own experience this almost hurt my USMLE Step 1 score.

I will begin by saying that even when I was in university I was told I was smart because I could pick up on concepts quickly. This label ultimately hurt me as I was so desperate to keep this label I rarely sought help or worked with others. I felt that asking someone for aide was admitting I was not as clever as people thought I was. I majored in biochemistry and minored in math, so sometimes I would spend hours working through a problem that I could have understood faster if I would have sought a colleague or friend out. Does this sound like a smart person to you?

What I learned is a wise person learns from their mistakes, does not care about labels, and also knows what they do not know. Even though I am saying this the struggle of learning a new concept is crucial to success. This makes asking for help a balancing act. It is generally best to work through tough areas for a specific amount of time and then ask for help. How much time? That depends on how much studying time you have, but generally do not spend more than 15 to 20 minutes on a single concept. After that point you need to seek someone out or come back to it later.

I know some of you may be on your own and that is where my service can help you the most. At MCCEE tutoring services we will help you learn difficult concepts, how to apply them, and teach you study techniques so you do not repeat the same mistakes I made in university and early medical school. As a final thought, this post was primarily about studying, but it does apply to residency and beyond. Never be afraid to admit when you need even a little help.

That is all for this post, so if you want a free and non-obligatory consult on how to study for the USMLE, NBME exams, or MCCEE or any other medical exam check out http://www.mcceetutoringservices.com/contact and send me an email! If you liked this article or have experiences of your own you want to share just say so in the comments below!

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Why vancomycin is not the answer

As I tutor of medical students I have noticed a few trends. I wanted to share just one of them today. Specifically I want to talk about a very specific antibiotic that many students think is the answer for so many infectious disease questions. That antibiotic is vancomycin. Now, just to clarify, I am not shaming anyone for not knowing. On the contrary, I want to help you to understand the right times to use vancomycin, so that you can get those pesky MCQ questions correct. More importantly this knowledge will help you when making decisions on how to help your patients. We need to start with answering the question, what is vancomycin?

Vancomycin is a renally excreted inhibitor of peptidoglycan synthesis which is used to build the bacterial cell wall. Without this the bacteria dies which by definition makes vancomycin bactericidal. It accomplishes this by stopping D-Ala-D-Ala groups from attaching to the growing chain; however, gram negative bacteria cell walls are thick. Gram negative bacteria, such as E. coli, have porin proteins that act as tunneled highways by letting small molecules in and are too small to allow bulky molecules such as vancomycin through. If you remember back to molecular biology class 70% of UTIs are caused by E. coli. That being said is the first point is vancomycin is not used to treat UTIs unless the organism involved is gram positive AND you do not have other options.

Now you may be saying that vancomycin has activity against MRSA and you would be right. Vancomycin is used in cases of suspected or confirmed MRSA infection as well as serious skin/bone (osteomyelitis) infections caused by staphylococci; however, have you ever noticed that for sepsis and endocarditis the guidelines say to switch to a synthetic penicillin (PCN) if culture results show MSSA infection or a non-staphylococci infection? This is partly to stop cross resistance from developing as well as the fact that vancomycin is not as effective as synthetic penicillins, but also because vancomycin is very toxic. Red man syndrome is one toxicity that leads to an IgE independent mast cell degranulation. This causes wheals and urticaria primarily on the upper torso, neck, and arms. Rarely this can cause angioedema. The risk of this can be reduced by anti-histamine prophylaxis and decreasing the infusion rate. Drug fever is another possible problem that complicates the clinical course, but nowhere near as much as the feared neutropenia.

Vancomycin also does a great job of working synergistically with aminoglycosides to create help destroy the patient’s ears and kidneys (ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity). Again you might say, but a patient can live without their kidneys on dialysis right? If we ignore the fact that lifelong dialysis is life changing to say the least then yes you can survive on dialysis; although, vancomycin is not removed by dialysis. One dose is enough for 7 days while on dialysis. This is important as many of the toxicities, and the benefits, are dose dependent.

The route of entry is also important to consider. Vancomycin is used IV, but is not released into the colon this way. For moderate/severe C. difficile infection or previous C. difficile infection you should give vancomycin orally. Watch for trick questions that will have both IV and oral (PO) as possible answers. This also adds the duality that vancomycin given IV does not alter the gut flora and does not cause diarrhea. With this being said there is one other area where vancomycin is important and that is when GBS treatment is required in a pregnant woman allergic to PCN.

That is all for this post, so if you want a free and non-obligatory consult on how to study for the USMLE, NBME exams, or MCCEE or any other medical exam check out http://www.mcceetutoringservices.com/contact and send me an email! If you liked this article just say so in the comments below!

References

Golan, D. E., Tashjian, A. H., & Armstrong, E. a. (2012). Prinicples of Pharmocology: The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy Third Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Is that a normal EKG tracing?

When I was studying for the Step 1 I remember how much time I spent on memorizing pathology, biochemistry, and genetics. I spent hardly any time on minor areas such as biostatistics, EKGs (Electrocardiograms), and heart sounds. Now I did make the socially isolating decision early in university to minor in math, so I always felt comfortable with statistics. When it came to EKGs I was more looking for all those First Aid buzzwords like “saw tooth waves.” EKG’s are important not only for the USMLE Step 1, but also the Step 2 CK, and the Canadian exams such as the NAC OSCE.

Many of you have probably been handed many an EKG by an attending and asked to interpret it. This may lead to you staring at the sheet hoping the answer will pop out like the image on an autostereogram in Figure 1. (you know those pictures you stare at cross eyed to make a 3d image). Even if you have not started rotations yet, the importance of understanding an EKG for all USMLE exams cannot be overstated. This is similar to my blog about biostatistics, learning how to read an EKG is lost in the shuffle while studying pathology or general medicine. Subjects like biostatistics, EKGs, and hearts sounds alone will not give you the score you want, but what they will do is increase your score from say a 230 to a 240 if you had not put any time into them.

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Why can these smaller subjects change your marks so much? You are guaranteed questions from these small subjects. Let me reinforce that point. You are guaranteed to receive several questions that have EKGs, hearts sounds, and biostatistics. Remember there are only so many questions on the exam and although I cannot say an exact number, over a half dozen questions are used in these subject areas. Are you really going to leave the answers to those all up to chance just so you can learn another obscure pathology concept that will likely not be on the test?

In my previous blog entry I wrote about how to get better with biostatistics. The next question you may have is how do I master reading an EKG? First you will need to develop a systemic method of the reading the EKG just like with X-rays. You can do this by reading: https://www.amazon.ca/Rapid-Interpretation-EKGs-Methodology-Understanding/dp/0912912065. This book is the Bible of reading EKGs. It is also interactive with practice EKGs to read. The second thing you need to do is get as much practice as you can by looking at EKGs and try and figure out what the tracing suggests.

After you have mastered EKGs you should try your hand with the tracing below and tell me what you think the diagnosis is in the comments below. This is a more complicated strip (ie. will not exactly be on the exam, but will happen in real life), so use a systematic approach to it.

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That is all for this post, so if you want a free and non-obligatory consult on how to study for the USMLE, NBME exams, or MCCEE or any other medical exam check out http://www.mcceetutoringservices.com/contact and send me an email! If you liked this article just say so in the comments below!

USMLE Exams and the Importance of Biostatistics

Medical students in the US, particularly IMGs (International Medical Graduates) and pre-IMGs, know the importance of achieving a first time pass and high score on the USMLE (United States Medical Licensing Examination) Step 1. It is long and intense and everyone is always happy when it is finally over. The majority of the questions come from the section “Internal Medicine” so it would seem like an easy way to get a high score is to make sure you memorize everything internal medicine. In practice this is difficult because internal medicine is a gateway to many different topics such as nephrology, cardiology, pulmonology which makes it difficult to fully memorize. I would suggest first to learn the six disciplines as best as you can, but also know a few smaller sections very well. In this post I want to focus on the neglected discipline of medicine: statistics.

Before I dive right into the main part of this post, I wanted to introduce a bit of my background prior starting medical school. Many years ago I realized I wanted to become a doctor and I started working my way down the path of science. I had, and still have, a great love of math and science which propelled me to major in biochemistry. After one year I found the course load of biochemistry to be not socially isolating enough and added a math minor. This is where my passion for math started to grow. It is a very great tool for science, but now I see many medical students and doctors do not fully understand statistics.

Statistics is a branch of math, so most people would normally choose swallowing a pack of batteries than try to learn it. The most common thing I hear people say is, “Why do I need to learn this? I am not going into research!” This may be true, but you do have to read journal papers, understand them, and critique them. Statistics helps you decide if there are any sources of bias and evaluate the likelihood of a type I error (rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true) without even having any knowledge of the medical content of the paper. This will come into play in rotations and will continue throughout your medical career.

If gaining valuable critiquing skills for journal articles is not enough for you then I will give you a very strong reason. You will have biostatistics questions on the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK exams. There will be several of them. On an exam of 322 questions you cannot afford to lose four to five guaranteed marks. A few of these questions will center on tiny articles you have to read, while others will be straight forward providing that you study for this.

I guess I did say that many people find studying for biostatistics about as exciting as watching paint dry, so is there an easy way to learn the material? Of course there is! I would not have written this article otherwise. I have an interactive e-book out complete with USMLE and MCCEE style practice questions. It makes the process much less painful and is more effective at helping you remember the content. I have shown a couple of example pages and a question below. The bold text is the answers to the blanks which is the interactive component.

 

Question: According to a shingles prevention study the live attenuated Herpes zoster vaccine decreased the incidence of shingles over a three year period by 50% in an at risk group. The difference was 3.3% for the placebo group and 1.6% for the treatment group. How many people need to receive treatment in order for one person to not get shingles?

  1. 1
  2. 43
  3. 2
  4. 59
  5. 14

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You do not have to just take my word for it you can check out the reviews on Amazon at https://www.amazon.ca/Medical-School-Statistics-Rx-MCCEE-ebook/dp/B01M3Q9868/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1483653731&sr=8-1&keywords=statistics+rx

That is all for this post, so if you want a free and non-obligatory consult on how to study for the USMLE, NBME exams, or MCCEE or any other medical exam check out http://www.mcceetutoringservices.com/contact and send me an email! If you liked this article just say so in the comments below!